Head & Neck Surgery

Head & Neck Surgery


At Crystal Canyon ENT & FPS, our specialist is fully trained and board certified as a surgeon of the head and neck. This includes surgery for salivary gland tumors, thyroid nodules, enlarged lymph nodes and cancer.


Though we offer complete care for all head and neck ailments, below are some of the most common head and neck issues.

About Your Thyroid

Your thyroid gland is one of the endocrine glands that makes hormones to regulate physiological functions in your body, like metabolism (heart rate, sweating, energy consumed). Other endocrine glands include the pituitary, adrenal, and parathyroid glands and specialized cells within the pancreas.


The thyroid gland is located in the middle of the lower neck, below the larynx (voice box) and wraps around the front half of the trachea (windpipe). It is shaped like a bow tie, just above the collarbones, having two halves (lobes) joined by a small tissue bar (isthmus.). You can't always feel a normal thyroid gland.


Diseases of the thyroid gland are very common, affecting millions of Americans. The most common thyroid problems are:

  • An overactive gland, called hyperthyroidism (e.g., Graves' disease, toxic adenoma or toxic nodular goiter)
  • An underactive gland, called hypothyroidism (e.g., Hashimoto's thyroiditis)
  • Thyroid enlargement due to over activity (as in Graves' disease) or from under-activity (as in hypothyroidism). An enlarged thyroid gland is often called a "goiter."

Common symptoms of a under or overactive thyroid are:

  • Fatigue
  • Depression
  • Unexplained weight gain or weight loss
  • A firm, usually painless nodule in the neck
  • Hair loss

TMJ (Temporo-Mandibular Joint)

You can locate this joint by putting your finger on the triangular structure in front of your ear. Then move your finger just slightly forward and press firmly while you open your jaw all the way and close it. You can also feel the joint motion in your ear canal.


In most patients, pain associated with the TMJ is a result of displacement of the cartilage disc that causes pressure and stretching of the associated sensory nerves. The popping or clicking occurs when the disk snaps into place when the jaw moves. In addition, the chewing muscles may spasm, not function efficiently, and cause pain and tenderness.


What are the symptoms of TMJ?

  • Ear pain
  • Sore jaw muscles
  • Temple/cheek pain
  • Jaw popping/clicking
  • Locking of the jaw
  • Difficulty in opening the mouth fully
  • Frequent head/neck aches

Head and Neck Cancer

As many as 90 percent of head and neck cancers arise after prolonged exposure to specific risk factors. Use of tobacco (cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, or snuff) and alcoholic beverages are the most common cause of cancers of the mouth, throat, voice box, and tongue. In adults who do not smoke or drink, cancer of the throat can occur as a result of infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV). Prolonged exposure to sunlight is linked with cancer of the lip and is also established as a major cause of skin cancer.


Remember—when found early, most cancers in the head and neck can be cured with few side effects. Cure rates for these cancers could be greatly improved if people would seek medical advice as soon as possible. Play it safe. If you detect warning signs of head and neck cancer, see your doctor immediately. And practice health habits which help prevent these diseases.

© 2012 American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery

Thyroid

Voice & Swallowing


Over 20 percent of the population suffers from chronic laryngitis or hoarseness. Voice and swallowing issues can be caused by smoking, excessive alcohol drinking and even allergies. At Crystal Canyon ENT & FPS we treat the following concerns:

  • Acute Laryngitis
  • Chronic Laryngitis
  • Hoarseness
  • Vocal Cord Polyps, Cysts, Nodules or Lesions
  • Vocal Cord Paralysis

Though we offer complete care for all voice and swallowing ailments, below are some of the most common voice and swallowing issues.

Vocal Cord Polyps, Cysts, Nodules and Lesions

A vocal cord polyp typically occurs only on one side of the vocal cord and can occur in a variety of shapes and sizes. Depending upon the nature of the polyp, it can cause a wide range of voice disturbances.


A vocal cord cyst is a firm mass of tissue contained within a membrane (sac). The cyst can be located near the surface of the vocal cord or deeper, near the ligament of the vocal cord. As with vocal cord polyps and nodules, the size and location of vocal cord cysts affect the degree of disruption of vocal cord vibration and subsequently the severity of hoarseness or other voice problem. Surgery followed by voice therapy is the most commonly recommended treatment for vocal cord cysts that significantly alter and/or limit voice.


Vocal cord nodules are also known as "calluses of the vocal fold." They appear on both sides of the vocal cords, typically at the midpoint, and directly face each other. Like other calluses, these lesions often diminish or disappear when overuse of the area is stopped.

Symptoms of Benign Vocal Cord Lesions

  • Vocal fatigue
  • Unreliable voice
  • Delayed voice initiation
  • Low, gravelly voice
  • Low pitch
  • Voice breaks in first passages of sentences
  • Airy or breathy voice
  • Inability to sing in high, soft voice
  • Increased effort to speak or sing
  • Hoarse and rough voice quality
  • Frequent throat clearing
  • Extra force needed for voice
  • Voice "hard to find"

Hoarseness

Abnormal changes in the voice are called "hoarseness." When hoarse, the voice may sound breathy, raspy, strained, or show changes in volume or pitch (depending on how high or low the voice is). Voice changes are related to disorders in the sound-producing parts (vocal folds) of the voice box (larynx). While breathing, the vocal folds remain apart. When speaking or singing, they come together and, as air leaves the lungs, they vibrate, producing sound. Swelling or lumps on the vocal folds hinder vibration, altering voice quality, volume, and pitch.


Most common cause of hoarseness is acute laryngitis- swelling of the vocal folds that occurs during a common cold, upper respiratory tract viral infection, or from voice strain. Serious injury to the vocal folds can result from strenuous voice use during an episode of acute laryngitis.


Another possible cause of hoarseness is gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD), when stomach acid comes up the swallowing tube (esophagus) and irritates the vocal folds. Other typical symptoms of GERD include heartburn and regurgitation. Usually, the voice is worse in the morning and improves during the day. These people may have a sensation of a lump or mucus in their throat and have an excessive desire to clear it.

Swallowing

Difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia) is common among all age groups, especially the elderly. The term dysphagia refers to the feeling of difficulty passing food or liquid from the mouth to the stomach. This may be caused by many factors, most of which are temporary and not threatening. Difficulties in swallowing rarely represent a more serious disease, such as a tumor or a progressive neurological disorder. When the difficulty does not clear up by itself in a short period of time, you should see an otolaryngologist—head and neck surgeon.


Symptoms of swallowing disorders may include:

  • drooling
  • a feeling that food or liquid is sticking in the throat
  • discomfort in the throat or chest (when gastro esophageal reflux is present)
  • a sensation of a foreign body or "lump" in the throat
  • weight loss and inadequate nutrition due to prolonged or more significant problems with swallowing
  • coughing or choking caused by bits of food, liquid, or saliva not passing easily during swallowing, and being sucked into the lungs
  • voice change
© 2012 American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery


This website serves as an introduction and brief overview of services offered at our facility. For more detailed answers to your questions, please contact our office.